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For years, the Ottoman Empire was the dominant political, cultural, and military force in the Middle East. Originally the Turks were a nomadic horseman from Central Asia who embraced Islam in the ninth century.
Under the Seljuk leader Tugrul they captured Baghdad. The first major victory of the Seljuk Turks over Christians followed in when a Byzantine army was defeated near Lake Van. Subsequently the Seljuk's established a Sultanate with the capital at Konya on the site of the Greek city of Iconium.
The Seljuk Sultanate survived until the early years of the fourteenth century when they were decimated by pagan Mongol hordes.
Local rulers then carved out principalities for themselves. Sultan Osman I founded the Ottoman Empire in as a loose confederation of Turkish beyliks, or ethnic tribes, united by their ambition for westward conquest and expansion.
His dynasty became known as the 'Osmanli' in Turkish and 'Othman' in Arabic, which was corrupted into 'Ottoman' in the languages of Western Europe.
Osman died in when his army was besieging the Byzantine city of Brusa Bursa today which was captured by his son and successor Orhan. Brusa became the first effective capitol of an Ottoman Sultanate Palmer, Paleologue who sought their military aid against a usurper. The Ottomans quickly made vassals of the Bulgars and Serbs consolidating their Balkan gains by a decisive victory over the southern Slavs in June at Kosovo.
During this period the Ottomans penetrated deeply into Europe mounting raids across the farmlands of southern Hungary. They were checked by Janos Hunyadi in Transylvania in and outside Belgrade in Palmer, The city grid had been laid out by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century, and the site soon became a coveted trading center, straddling both a land route between Europe and Asia and a seaway to the Mediterranean Weider History Group, For centuries Constantinople was the largest metropolis in the known world, the impregnable core of a great empire, served by a deep-water port that gave access to the sea.
Known as New Rome and the Queen City, it had been built to impress, its magnificent public monuments, decorated with statuary set in an elegant classical urban landscape. Its apparent invincibility and famous reputation made it a great prize. The city was also reputed to be hugely wealthy.
While the Turks had no interest in its famous collection of Christian relics, the fact that many were made of solid gold and silver, decorated with huge gems and ancient cameos, was of importance.
Their existence added weight to the rumor that Constantinople contained vast stores of gold, a claim which cannot have been true by By the early fifteenth century the city had lost all its provinces to Turkish occupation and was totally isolated.
The Ottomans had conquered all the lands around the city of Constantinople Herrin, By the time Mehmed II rose to power in the 15th century, Ottoman desire for Constantinople had reached a fever pitch.
The army defending Constantinople comprised just 8, soldiers, but they manned a virtually impregnable bastion, dominated by the four-mile Walls of Theodosius. Surrounded by water on three sides and buttressed by three gated land walls, the fortress city had thwarted invaders for more than a millennium.
Its walls had proved resistant to traditional medieval siege technology, but Mehmed had a secret weapon. The year prior, a mercenary founder named Orban had offered his services, the construction of large bronze cannons, to both the Byzantines and the Ottomans.
Mehmed was the highest bidder.Nov 27, · Ottoman Empire Essay. Essay about The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Words | 8 Pages. The Rise of The Ottoman Empire By: Hunter Starr HIST Muslim History From the Rise of Islam to CE Professor Matthee November 27, The Ottoman Turks emerged on the periphery of the Byzantine Empire and the .
The rise of the Ottoman empire compares very closely with the fall of the Roman empire of both the eastern Byzantine empire with its capital in Constantinople and the western Roman empire with its capital in Rome along with the weakening of the Byzantines staunch enemy at the time, the Seljuq Sultanate of .
The Ottoman Empire stretched out from a small territory near Constantinople to overthrow and control the remnant of the Byzantine empire in the late thirteenth century, Successfully seizing the empire it centralized to a Sunni Islamic state. The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire The rise of the Ottoman Empire started in Turkey and spread through most of the Middle East.
Their military practice and successful transition to the use of gun powder made them one of the most successful ruling bodies in .
Dec 08, · The Rise of The Ottoman Empire By: Hunter Starr HIST Muslim History From the Rise of Islam to CE Professor Matthee November 27, The Ottoman Turks emerged on the periphery of the Byzantine Empire and the Saljuk Turks.
The Rise of The Ottoman Empire By: Hunter Starr HIST Muslim History From the Rise of Islam to CE Professor Matthee November 27, The Ottoman Turks emerged on the periphery of the Byzantine Empire and the Saljuk Turks.