The CIA would rescind it, making every effort to impede publication of The Phoenix Program, which documented the CIA's elaborate system of population surveillance, control, entrapment, imprisonment, torture and assassination in Vietnam. While researching Phoenix, Valentine learned that the CIA allowed opium and heroin to flow from its secret bases in Laos, to generals and politicians on its payroll in South Vietnam. His investigations into this illegal activity focused on the CIA's relationship with the federal drugs agencies mandated by Congress to stop illegal drugs from entering the United States.
Patron-client networks[ edit ] Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, and as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition.
These networks are usually composed of: They focus more on how the operations works, succeeds, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are generally typified by: However, this model of operation has some flaws: The 'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to; Maintaining written records jeopardizes the security of the organization and relies on increased security measures; Infiltration at lower levels in the hierarchy can jeopardize the entire organization a ' house of cards ' effect ; and, Death, injury, incarceration or internal power struggles dramatically heighten the insecurity of operations.
While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and strongly authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later.
More interventions actually lead to greater gang participation and solidarity and bonds between members. No ethnic group is more disposed to gang involvement than another, rather it is the status of being marginalized, alienated or rejected that makes some groups more vulnerable to gang formation,    and this would also be accounted for in the effect of social exclusion,   especially in terms of recruitment and retention.
These may also be defined by age typically youth or peer group influences,  and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity.
These groups also form their own symbolic identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large include colors, symbols, patches, flags and tattoos.
Research has focused on whether the gangs have formal structures, clear hierarchies and leadership in comparison with adult groups, and whether they are rational in pursuit of their goals, though positions on structures, hierarchies and defined roles are conflicting.
Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure and behavior had a degree of organizational rationality.
Also a specified and regular means of income i.
Padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be loose rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals and little organizational structure.
Similarly, the use of violence does not conform to the principles behind protection rackets, political intimidation and drug trafficking activities employed by those adult groups. In many cases gang members graduate from youth gangs to highly developed OC groups, with some already in contact with such syndicates and through this we see a greater propensity for imitation.
Gangs and traditional criminal organizations cannot be universally linked Decker,  however there are clear benefits to both the adult and youth organization through their association. In terms of structure, no single crime group is archetypal, though in most cases there are well-defined patterns of vertical integration where criminal groups attempt to control the supply and demandas is the case in arms, sex and drug trafficking.
Entrepreneurial[ edit ] The entrepreneurial model looks at either the individual criminal or a smaller group of organized criminals, that capitalize off the more fluid 'group-association' of contemporary organized crime. The choice to commit a certain act, or associate with other organized crime groups, may be seen as much more of an entrepreneurial decision - contributing to the continuation of a criminal enterprise, by maximizing those aspects that protect or support their own individual gain.
In this context, the role of risk is also easily understandable,   however it is debatable whether the underlying motivation should be seen as true entrepreneurship  or entrepreneurship as a product of some social disadvantage.
The criminal organization, much in the same way as one would assess pleasure and pain, weighs such factors as legal, social and economic risk to determine potential profit and loss from certain criminal activities.
This decision-making process rises from the entrepreneurial efforts of the group's members, their motivations and the environments in which they work.
Opportunism is also a key factor — the organized criminal or criminal group is likely to frequently reorder the criminal associations they maintain, the types of crimes they perpetrate, and how they function in the public arena recruitment, reputation, etc.
This may ultimately lead to a competitive advantage for some groups; however, it is inaccurate to adopt this as the only determinant of classification in organized crime. This categorization includes the Sicilian MafiaJamaican possesColombian drug trafficking groupsNigerian organized crime groups, Corsican mafiaJapanese Yakuza or BoryokudanKorean criminal groups and ethnic Chinese criminal groups.
From this perspective, organized crime is not a modern phenomenon - the construction of 17th and 18th century crime gangs fulfill all the present day criteria of criminal organizations in opposition to the Alien Conspiracy Theory. When the French revolution created strong nation states, the criminal gangs moved to other poorly controlled regions like the Balkans and Southern Italy, where the seeds were sown for the Sicilian Mafia - the lynchpin of organized crime in the New World.Reviewing organized crime’s origins and history will allow us to point the major areas concerning the foundation and definitions of organized crime, how the organized crime gained a foothold in the US, how they sought to influence the government, and how they are doing now, post-prohibition era.
The American Mafia, an Italian-American organized-crime network with operations in cities across the United States, particularly New York .
His book The Origin of Organized Crime in America: The New York City Mafia, is the product of 10 years of research both in the United States and the United Kingdom.
of British crime. He documented the existence of gangs of The history of street gangs in the United States begins with their emergence on the East Coast around , as the American Revolution ended (Sante, ). But of the origins of gang activity and to examine regional. Organized crime in the United States first came to prominence in the Old West and historians such as Brian J. Robb and Erin H. Turner traced the first organized crime syndicates to the Coschise Cowboy Gang and the Wild Bunch. Organized crime is lucrative. The President`s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice reckoned that organized crime`s income was twice that of the combined take of all other kinds of criminal behavior. In , Congress passed the Racketeer Influenced and .
His current research areas include transnational organized crime, human trafficking and the sex industry, and drug trafficking by teenagers in rural Kentucky. A History of the Origins of Policing in Albany, Albany, New York: Michael J. Hindelang Criminal Research Justice Center, Platt, Tony, "Crime and Punishment in the United States.
Sep 11, · Watch video · The American Mafia, an Italian-American organized-crime network with operations in cities across the United States, particularly New York and Chicago, rose to power through its success in the.
Referencing The Wild One’s original conceit is relevant because if one actually surveys the history of organized crime syndicates, the majority of them have origins which .