For more information see: The diagrams are clearly labeled and allow you to see the relationship and placement of the various structures of the body. You will also be surprised how the act of coloring will help with recall. But this is not just a beginners book, it is also great for practitioners and therapists to have on hand to use with clients and patients to use as a visual reference.
Skeletal muscle[ edit ] Skeletal striated muscleor "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle enables movement of the bones of the human skeleton and maintains posture. The majority of this type of muscle tissue is found in the digestive and urinary systems where it acts by propelling forward food, chymeand feces in the former and urine in the latter.
Other places smooth muscle can be found are within the uteruswhere it helps facilitate birth, and the eyewhere the pupillary sphincter controls pupil size. It is also involuntary in its movement, and is additionally self-excitatory, contracting without outside stimuli. Agonists and antagonists [ edit ] Agonist muscles and antagonist muscles refer to muscles that cause or inhibit a movement.
Agonist muscles cause a movement to occur through their own activation. During the down phase of a push-up, the same triceps brachii actively controls elbow flexion while producing a lengthening contraction. It is still the agonist, because while resisting gravity during relaxing, the triceps brachii continues to be the prime mover, or controller, of the joint action.
Agonists are also interchangeably referred to as "prime movers," since they are the muscles considered primarily responsible for generating or controlling a specific movement. Another example is the dumbbell curl at the elbow. The "elbow flexor" group is the agonist, shortening during the lifting phase elbow flexion.
During the lowering phase the "elbow flexor" muscles lengthen, remaining the agonists because they are controlling the load and the movement elbow extension. For both the lifting and lowering phase, the "elbow extensor" muscles are the antagonists see below. They lengthen during the dumbbell lifting phase and shorten during the dumbbell lowering phase.
Here it is important to understand that it is common practice to give a name to a muscle group e.
However, this naming convention does not mean they are only agonists during shortening. This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles. The opposing torque can slow movement down - especially in the case of a ballistic movement.
For example, during a very rapid ballistic discrete movement of the elbow, such as throwing a dart, the triceps muscles will be activated very briefly and strongly in a "burst" to rapidly accelerate the extension movement at the elbow, followed almost immediately by a "burst" of activation to the elbow flexor muscles that decelerates the elbow movement to arrive at a quick stop.
To use an automotive analogy, this would be similar to pressing your gas pedal rapidly and then immediately pressing the brake. Antagonism is not an intrinsic property of a particular muscle or muscle group; it is a role that a muscle plays depending on which muscle is currently the agonist.
During slower joint actions that involve gravity, just as with the agonist muscle mentioned abovethe antagonist muscle can shorten and lengthen.
Using the example above of the triceps brachii during a push-up, the elbow flexor muscles are the antagonists at the elbow during both the up phase and down phase of the movement. During the dumbbell curl, the elbow extensors are the antagonists for both the lifting and lowering phases.
Antagonist and agonist muscles often occur in pairs, called antagonistic pairs. As one muscle contracts, the other relaxes.
An example of an antagonistic pair is the biceps and triceps ; to contract - the triceps relaxes while the biceps contracts to lift the arm.Confirming Tendon Origins/Insertions by Imaging their Bony Landmarks.
Muscles move our joints. To do that, they need a place on the bone to anchor (origin) and a place to attach (insertion). Many of the original Hackett points for Prolotherapy involved injecting tendon origins or insertions (enthesis). While many of these are easily accessible. 5) Now add the origins and insertions to the image – write it and indicate where on the image.
Now look at it, commit it to memory. if when you close your eyes you cannot see all of the detail, then try this a few more times, looking at the image and then closing your eyes.
origin- two heads from medial to lateral of condyle of femur. insertion- calcaneus by calcaneal tendon. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.
The insertion is a bone that tends to be distal, have less mass, and greater motion than the origin. Trying to learn Latin? We can help! Memorize these flashcards or create your own Latin flashcards with ashio-midori.com Learn a new language today.5/5(1).
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