Oldest known rock about million B. These dates may be as much as ten per cent. That is to say, 60, years ago our ancestors were mammals, probably not unlike lemurs, , years ago amphibians somewhat resembling newts or mud-puppies, and , years ago very primitive fish, combining some of the characters of sharks and lampreys. The origin of life on our planet was probably over a thousand million years ago, so that the record furnished by fossils only refers to half—perhaps much less than half of the time during which life has existed.
In particular he adopted the complete five-fold titulary after his reunification of Egypt, seemingly for the first time since the 6th Dynasty, though known records are sparse for much of the First Intermediate Period that preceded him.
Another proof that Mentuhotep II paid great attention to the traditions of the Old Kingdom is his second Nomen, sometimes found as s3 Hw. Finally, in later king lists, Mentuhotep was referred to with a variant of his third titulary Monuments[ edit ] Mentuhotep II commanded the construction of many temples though few survive to this day.
Well preserved is a funerary chapel found in at Abydos. Mentuhotep II's most ambitious and innovative building project remains his large mortuary temple.
The many architectural innovations of the temple mark a break with the Old Kingdom tradition of pyramid complexes and foreshadow the Temples of Millions of Years of the New Kingdom. However, the most profound innovations of Mentuhotep II's temple are not architectural but religious.
First, it is the earliest mortuary temple where the king is not just the recipient of offerings but rather enacts ceremonies for the gods in this case Amun-Ra. Indeed, the decoration and royal statuary of the temple emphasizes the Osirian aspects of the dead ruler, an ideology apparent in the funerary statuary of many later pharaohs.
This is evidenced by the dominant artistic style of the temple which represents people with large lips and eyes and thin bodies. This phenomenon of fragmentation of the artistic styles is observed throughout the First Intermediate Period and is a direct consequence of the political fragmentation of the country.
The choice of this location is certainly related to the Theban origin of the 11th Dynasty: Mentuhotep's predecessors on the Theban throne are all buried in close-by saff tombs. Furthermore, Mentuhotep may have chosen Deir el-Bahri because it is aligned with the temple of Karnak, on the other side of Nile.
In particular, the statue of Amun was brought annually to Deir el-Bahri during the Beautiful Festival of the Valleysomething which the king may have perceived as beneficial to this funerary cult. They consequently went unnoticed until the second half of the century, in spite of extensive excavations performed on the nearby Djeser-Djeseru of Hatshepsut.
Thus it was only inthat Lord Dufferin and his assistants, Dr. Lorange and Cyril C. Graham, started to excavate the southwest corner of the hypostyle hall of Mentuhotep's temple. Clearing the immense mass of debris, they soon discovered the plundered grave of Queen Tem, one of Mentuhotep's wives.
Realising the potential of the site, they then gradually worked their way to the sanctuary, where they found the granite altar of Mentuhotep with a representation of Amun-Re and various other finds such as the grave of Neferu TT Finally, inHoward Carter discovered the Bab el-Hosan  cache in the front court, where he uncovered the famous black seated statue of the king.
He was the first to undertake a systematic exploration of the temple. About ten years later, between andHerbert E.
Winlock further excavated the temple for the Metropolitan Museum of Art. However, his results were published only in the form of preliminary reports in summary form. He published his results in three volumes. Foundational offerings[ edit ] Under the four corners of the temple terrace, H.In these writing practice worksheets, students practice writing and reading in these exercises.
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Prepared by. Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The material in this report originated in the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Ursula E. Bauer, PhD, Director. Free Essays on Lower Secondary English.
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