This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Novel efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey CHESS is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options.
The observations contained in this presentation apply to most types of rural areas in many different locales. The central argument of this work is that wherever viable rural settlements exist, the government, professional planners, and inhabitants within must focus their energies on the immediate place - they must make the word "local" mean something if we are ever to be successful in the retention and sustenance of "local community.
Because these two assumptions are decidedly "counter cultural," they will appear to many as impractical [Theobold, ]. Defining Rural There are many ways to define areas that are "rural.
As a corollary to these classification systems, there persists the traditional assumptions that tend to go along with the word "rural," assumptions that are often ungrounded and at best belie the diversity inherent in areas typically grouped together as "rural" or "nonmetropolitan.
Moreover, the geopolitical boundaries that usually serve as the basis for these classifications often are not optimal. The Urban - Rural Imbalance Since it should be clear that metropolitan settlement structure leading to urban conglomerations is the dominant growth form of the world.
Metropolitan areas will account for 70 percent of the net growth in world population during the s - an additional 67 million people every year.
Other than natural increase, the prime engine of metropolitan growth is rural-to-urban migration. It is, however, important to note that rural - to - metropolitan trends have changed directions several times in the latter part of the 20th Century.
It would appear that change, rather than stability, is the typical demographic and economic situation for most of the world's rural and nonmetropolitan areas at the end of the 20th Century.
The United Nations reports that 43 percent of the world's population lived in urban areas in ; a 34 percent increase since In the next several yearsthe world will pass a historic milestone: At the turn of the century, only 14 percent of the Earth's population called cities home -- and just 11 centers on the planet had more than one million inhabitants.
Now there are cities with populations of at least one million, and 20 megacities with populations exceeding 10 million, with a half dozen of them approaching or exceeding the 20 million level.
While the developing world still flocks to core cities, much of Europe, North America, the Russian Federation, and Australia are reversing the process: At the halfway mark of the 21st Century, more than 70 percent of the world's population will live within the metropolitan framework an area now loosely defined up to 40 - kilometers from the older urban cores.
In most more developed nations, especially in North America and Europe, the urban-rural distribution now stands at 75 - 80 percent metropolitan to 20 - 25 percent rural. The most common factor contributing to rural-to-urban migration is rural unemployment resulting in part from rural areas having higher fertility levels than urban areas, according to Lori S.
A shortage of basic technology in rural areas also promotes out-migration and environmental degradation; it has led to a serious shortage of arable land in many communities throughout the developing world.
While the growth of cities can contribute to economic progress, the study notes that problems arise when urbanization "occurs so rapidly that it strains the ability of urban governments to provide housing, sanitation, public safety, and other necessary services and when there are not enough jobs.
The beginning of the 's saw many less developed countries heavily borrowed and unable to service their debt. The physical plant and infrastructure fashioned in the s and s - often of exceptionally poor quality - created high levels of service costs that even the most developed nations could not bear.
Hardest hit were the rural economies and regional settlement patterns resulting in a virtually unabated flow of resources to the metropolitan areas. The final result was the beginning of the demise of the centrally-planned economy and the ushering of the "Age of Austerity.
Many planners and development analysts regarded the goals of development under austerity as self-evident and non-problematic, seeing the only problems as concerning how to attain them.
The new paradigm recognized that both the environment and human settlement where open systems and regulated by things happening beyond local and national boundaries - the Global Economy - and greatly affected by natural and human imbalances.
In short, the urbancentric view of the world was called into question, especially the prevalent notion that the purpose of rural areas was to provide food, fuel, and cheap workers. The new paradigm not only recognizes the connectivity of the urban - rural spheres, but also addresses the issue of rural vitality.
For, unless rural areas are revitalized, the metropolitan centers must ultimately provide the rescue funds and resources to support the countryside. The solution is what we typically call economic development. In principle, the new paradigm called for self-sustaining economic growth and social policy designed to provide the requisites of existence and citizenship.
While the former can help provide the fuel for the latter, we must be under no illusion that growth itself will fulfill basic needs. The New Century Approach To Rural Planning The most important question to be asked is "are rural areas and country towns sustainable as working and living communities?Start studying community final.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The underlying factors influencing nutrition and food security in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities include socioeconomic factors such as income and employment opportunities, housing, over-crowding, transport, food costs, cultural food values, education, food and nutrition literacy, knowledge, skills and community strengths.
Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies.
were seen as important factors influencing PA opportunities, partly also affecting children and adolescents. The important role of. Greater New Haven is undergoing rapid demographic changes. Urban areas are becoming more populated, and diversity is rising in the inner ring towns.
The population over the age of 65 is the fastest growing demographic group for most of the region. The new emphasis on prevention and intervention science is to target societal factors influencing lifestyles; for example, food pricing policies, built environments, and smoke-free regulations (3, 6, 8–13).
Nursing - Test #2. STUDY. For example, a client with a fixed income who needs long-term medications may determine that food and shelter are more important than the medication; therefore, the client's health suffers.
Perception of functioning is an internal variable. A proposal written by a community-based nurse for a new, higher.