Fig-2 First American patent, July 31, Fig. X, July 31,was awarded to Samuel Hopkins for a process for making potash, an ingredient in fertilizer.
Yet in a swift fall from grace, the once highly influential police chief found himself charged in military court last month.
This followed his surprise firing this March and arrest in June. In the run-up to his recent court date, there had been much speculation about the charges he might face. The government-owned New Vision newspaper suggested Kayihura would be charged with crimes related to the assassination of former Police Spokesman Andrew Felix Kaweesi in March However, when it finally came down to it, the state levelled against Kayihura two counts of "failure to protect war materials" and one count of abetting the kidnap and repatriation of Rwandan exiles.
A network of operatives The charge sheet is revealing on both sets of allegations. To begin with, it accuses the former police chief of failing to manage the arms and ammunition used by the independent police units - the Flying Squad, Specialised Operations, Witness Protection, and the Crime Intelligence Directorate - under his direct supervision.
It also accuses Kayihura of illegally supplying guns to members of Boda Bodaa vigilante group infamous for brutally attacking protestors. This status enabled him to build a countrywide network of operatives, including a "crime preventer" force of an estimated 11 million people and other increasingly ubiquitous vigilante groups.
Kayihura enjoyed the loyalty of both senior and junior officers in the security forces and had influential associates inside and outside the government. However, this may have contributed to his downfall. It seems that at some point, Museveni became suspicious of his ally and his growing power base.
The state alleges that between andKayihura, working with subordinate officers and Rwandan agents, kidnapped and repatriated Rwandan exiles. Joel Mutabazi, a former presidential bodyguard, who was returned to Rwanda in and is now serving a life term for "plotting to kill President Kagame".
They have been detained at the same military barracks in Kampala where the former police chief was locked up for three months before being released on bail last month. These charges against Kayihura fit into a broader pattern of suspicion between Rwanda and Uganda.
Presidents Museveni and Kagame were once brothers in arms, but although their relations are cordial on the surface today, they have been deeply fractured ever since their armies clashed in the Second Congo War Kayihura is the subject of particularly deep suspicions given his closeness to the Rwandan state.
He is close friends with Kagame, who was the best man at his wedding. When army officers such as Kizza Besigye and David Sejusa were targeted by Museveni after falling out with him, they enjoyed some public sympathy.
But Kayihura is widely despised for his brutal actions as police chief. A day after the former police chief appeared in the army court, a government-owned newspaper headline screamed that "Kayihura faces death" if found guilty. As for now, the once powerful official is out on bail, but with strict restrictions on his movement.
He is not allowed to leave Kampala and the neighbouring Wakiso district or to go abroad without the permission of the court, the commander-in-chief and the army council. This has effectively cut Kayihura off from his local and international contacts.
In fact, prior to his arrest, it was reported that he was blocked twice from travelling abroad, including in May when he was barred from going to Germany for medical reasons. As the case unfolds over the coming months and possibly years, people in both Uganda and Rwanda will be watching closely.
Rwandan leaders in particular will be concerned at the way in which they, and their intelligence operations, are being portrayed and the allegations made. To contact the copyright holder directly for corrections — or for permission to republish or make other authorized use of this material, click here.
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First published in with 5 Doing Business holds new information to inspire policy makers and research-ers.
Gen Ntaganda, who is accused of recruiting child soldiers and massacring civilians in DR Congo, was sent to the ICC at The Hague following his surrender at the US embassy in Rwanda in March Facts and figures: Leadership and political participation Women in parliaments.
Only per cent of all national parliamentarians were women as of June , a slow increase from per cent in .As of October , 11 women are serving as Head of State and 12 are serving as Head of Government .Rwanda had the highest number of women parliamentarians worldwide.
Now in its 14th edition, the World Bank Doing Business Report was released on Tuesday 25th October Amongst many highlights, Rwanda was listed amongst the economies with the largest improvements in Business Regulations, following a series of key reforms, a new investment code, and the introduction of the ‘Integrated Electronic .
The Texarkana Gazette is the premier source for local news and sports in Texarkana and the surrounding Arklatex areas. Doing business Rwanda - smarter regulations for small and medium-size enterprises: comparing business regulations for domestic firms in economies (English) Abstract This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying.