Ayaan Hirsi Ali Everyone followed the cartoon crisis, or the crisis about the cartoon drawings of Mohammed in Denmark. That led to an explosion of violence because large groups of Muslims still will not accept criticism of their religion.
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual. Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction?
Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops.
In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.
Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person.
From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix. Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts.
A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets. There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication.
The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious. Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.Codependency is a controversial concept for a dysfunctional helping relationship where one person supports or enables another person's addiction, poor mental health, immaturity, irresponsibility, or under-achievement.
Among the core characteristics of codependency, the most common theme is an excessive reliance on other people for approval and a sense of identity. Abstract: Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals.
Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. Disclaimer: Psilocybin is a potentially illegal substance, and we do not encourage or condone the use of this substance where it is against the law.
However, we accept that illegal drug use occurs, and believe that offering responsible harm reduction information is imperative to keeping people safe. Jun 03, · Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under This reference list was compiled by Robert Hare for personal use.
Most, but not all, of the articles listed on these pages discuss or evaluate the PCL-R, the PCL:SV, the PCL:YV, and other Hare ashio-midori.com to available abstracts, and when available, links to the full text on the Journal web sites are provided (search for [full text] on the page below).
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