Among other requirements, the policies must allow parents to object to and withdraw a child from an activity, class or program. The policies must also include a procedure for notifying parents at least two weeks before any activity, class or program with content involving human reproduction or sexual matters is provided to a child. Sex education, human reproduction education and human sexuality education curriculum and materials must be approved by the school board and available for parents to review.
This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change. The information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed.
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally Comprehensive sexual education for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas.
Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors eg, number of partners and unprotected intercoursesexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts.
In addition to counseling and service provision to individual adolescent patients, obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education. Recommendations and Conclusions The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists the College makes the following recommendations and conclusions: Comprehensive sexuality education should be medically accurate, evidence-based, and age-appropriate, and should include the benefits of delaying sexual intercourse, while also providing information about normal reproductive development, contraception including long-acting reversible contraception methods to prevent unintended pregnancies, as well as barrier protection to prevent sexually transmitted infections STIs.
Obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education, by developing evidence-based curricula that focus on clear health goals eg, the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]and providing health care that focuses on optimizing sexual and reproductive health and development.
Comprehensive sexuality education should be medically accurate, evidence-based, and age-appropriate, and should include the benefits of delaying sexual intercourse, while also providing information about normal reproductive development, contraception including long-acting reversible contraception methods to prevent unintended pregnancies, as well as barrier protection to prevent STIs see Box 1.
They also should include state-specific legal ramifications of sexual behavior and the growing risks of sharing information online 1. Additionally, programs should cover the variations in sexual expression, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, anal sex, mutual masturbation, as well as texting and virtual sex 2.
The American Academy of Pediatrics provides an overview of the published research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education 3. Current Quality of Sexuality Education Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness.
Evaluations of biological outcomes of sexuality education programs, such as pregnancy rates and STIs, are expensive and complex, and they can be unreliable, often relying on self-reported behaviors to measure effectiveness.
Between andthere was a strong emphasis in sexuality education on abstinence until marriage because of federal and state funding bans on comprehensive information about contraception. Many states have requirements regarding topics that must be included in sex education programs.
Although most federal funding goes to comprehensive sexual education programs, Title V Abstinence Education Grant funding is available to states that choose to provide activities meeting abstinence-only specifications, which can be found at www.
The Role of the Obstetrician—Gynecologist In addition to counseling and service provision to adolescent patients, obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education by developing evidence-based curricula that focus on clear health goals eg, the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, including HIV and providing health care that focuses on optimizing sexual and reproductive health and development, including, for example, education about and administration of the human papillomavirus vaccine 6.
Additionally, obstetrician—gynecologists can encourage patients to engage in positive behaviors to achieve their health goals and discourage unhealthy relationships and behaviors that put patients at high risk of pregnancy and STIs.
When a responsible adult communicates about sexual topics with adolescents, there is evidence of delayed sexual initiation and increased birth control and condom use 9.
Community and school-based programs also are an important facet of sexuality education. However, one key component of an effective program is to encourage community-centered efforts. Innovative, multicomponent, community-wide initiatives that use evidence-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions and reproductive health services including inclusion of moderately or highly effective contraceptive methods, such as long-acting reversible contraception have dramatically reduced pregnancy rates among African American and Hispanic individuals aged 15—19 years old Although formal sex education varies in content across schools, studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourseSTIs, and adolescent pregnancy However, despite concerns raised by some involved in health education, a study of four select abstinence-only education programs reported no increase in the risk of adolescent pregnancy, STIs, or the rates of adolescent sexual activity compared with students in a control group Reaching Special Populations Adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities often are considered to be asexual and, thus, have been excluded from sexuality education However, they have concerns regarding sexuality similar to those of their peers without disabilities.
Their knowledge of anatomy and development, sexuality, contraception, and STIs including HIVshould be on par with their peers, and they should be included in sexuality programs through their schools and communities. Curricula that emphasize empowerment and gender equality tend to engage learners to question prevailing norms through critical thinking and encourage adolescents to adopt more egalitarian attitudes and relationships, resulting in better sexual and health outcomes Comprehensive sexuality programs should consider the benefits and pitfalls of social media.
There is a growing interest among adolescents to access sexual health information online that is written in language they can understand, that is in an interactive format, and that is presented in an entertaining manner 16 For more information, see Committee Opinion No.
For More Information The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has identified additional resources on topics related to this document that may be helpful for ob-gyns, other health care providers, and patients.
You may view these resources at www. These resources are for information only and are not meant to be comprehensive. The resources may change without notice. References Concerns regarding social media and health issues in adolescents and young adults.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) has many highly controversial components that can be harmful to children. Many CSE programs teach children about sex, sexuality, or .
Based on a survey of a nationally representative sample of 1, students conducted in May and June , Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School presents the most comprehensive research to date on sexual harassment in grades 7–The report reveals some sobering statistics about the prevalence of sexual harassment and the negative impact it has on students’ education.
Camille Tokerud / The Image Bank / Getty Images The research has shown it time and time again: Abstinence-only education doesn't affect the rates at which teenagers decide to have sex.
Education and parenting articles offer expert tips and information on raising kids. Read educational articles, parenting articles, & more. Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
Healthy Schools Database. Mandates: These topics are addressed in more than a dozen California laws. Education Code - (), known as the California Comprehensive Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education Act," seeks to (1) provide a pupil with the knowledge and skills necessary to protect his or her sexual and reproductive health from unintended pregnancy and .