Resources The Big Picture An understanding of students and how they learn is essential in developing instruction. This involves an understanding of psychology and learning theory. In addition, instructional developers need to understand the difference between novice and expert learners and how students mature as information users.
Get the Ebook 1 Learning theories tend to fall into one of several perspectives or paradigms, including behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and others. Here are some of the basic ones: Behaviorism Founders and proponents: Watson in the early 20th century.
Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, and others.
All behavior caused by external stimuli operant conditioning. All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness. Passive, responding to environmental stimuli.
Behavior may result in reinforcement increased likelihood that behavior will occur in the future ; or punishment. Replaced behaviorism in s as dominant paradigm.
Mental function can be understood Learner viewed as: It is necessary to determine how processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving occur. Metaphor of mind as computer: Learning is an active, constructive process. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.
New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, others. One with affective and cognitive needs. Emphasis on the freedom, dignity, and potential of humans.
Learning is student-centered and personal, facilitated by teachers, with the goal of developing self-actualized people in a cooperative, supportive environment.The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology) [R.
Keith Sawyer] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The interdisciplinary field of the learning sciences encompasses educational psychology, cognitive science.
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. Cognitive psychology derived its name from the Latin cognoscere, referring to knowing and information, thus cognitive psychology is an information-processing psychology derived in.
Behaviorism is a learning paradigm with its roots dating back to the second half of 19th century and works of Ivan Sechenov ( - ) and Vladimir Bekhterev ( - ), and gaining a significant attention in the first decades of the 20th century.
Overview. For sixty years, the contrasting philosophies of behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology have vied for the soul of psychology. From the s to the s, behavioral psychology dominated much of psychological thought, but the cognitive revolution of the s revealed cracks in the theories of the radical behaviorists, and .
Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education. Howard Gardner’s work around multiple intelligences has had a profound impact on thinking and practice . Cognitive behavioral therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements.
Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T.
Beck in the ashio-midori.com: Saul Mcleod.