Bibliography Definition Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise.
The introduction opening paragraph basically accomplishes two goals: Open with a series of questions about the topic. Present startling or unusual facts or figures. Define an important, subject related term. Quote a well known person or literary work.
Body Developmental paragraphs body paragraphs are the heart of an essay.
They must clearly and logically support the thesis. They must be arranged in the best possible way, e.
The paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. In addition, minor supporting ideas are linked together within the paragraphs in a smooth manner. Conclusion The conclusion is the summary paragraph. It should accomplish the following: Development General-to-specific sequence The topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph.
The topic sentence is a general statement introducing the paragraph and is followed by specific details that expand, explain, or illustrate the topic sentence. Unity All the sentences should relate to one topic. Completeness Supporting ideas should be developed enough to cover the topic.
Coherence Coherence equals connection and consistency. Body paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. Within a paragraph, there are three major ways to develop coherence through related sentences: Repetition of important words and pronouns - Repetition of key words helps the reader follow from sentence to sentence as important terms are defined and the relationship between them is explained.
Synonyms and substitutions - Synonyms are two or more words that have nearly the same thing. Substitution is a word that describes the subject. Transitional expressions - Transitional expressions are words and phrases that point out the exact relationship between one idea and another, one sentence and another, e.
Just as the sentences within a paragraph should flow smoothly, so the paragraphs within an essay should be clearly linked one to the next. The first sentence of each new paragraph is linked to the thesis statement or to the paragraph before. The following are four ways to link paragraphs: Repetition of key words or ideas from the thesis statement 2.
Reference to words or ideas from the preceding paragraph 3.
Use of transitional expressions 4. Use of transitional sentences A closer look at development Comparison and Contrast There are two ways to present similarities and differences between two things being compared or contrasted.
Point 1 Point 2 Then all B: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 This pattern is good for short compositions. The reader can easily remember what was said about A by the time he or she gets around to B.
Point-by-point topic by topic This method moves back and forth between A and B, presenting one point about A and then going to the parallel point about B. Then, it moves to the next point and does the same.
By going back and forth, the writer makes it easier for the reader to keep the contrasts or comparisons in mind. Extended Definition There are five basic methods to expand a definition:What is a narrative essay? When writing a narrative essay, one might think of it as telling a story.
These essays are often anecdotal, experiential, and personal—allowing students to express themselves in a creative and, quite often, moving ways. About academic paragraphs.
Academic paragraphs are the body paragraphs of your essay and account for about 90% of your word count and marks. They may also be the structure of short answer questions in other types of writing (e.g.
exams). Chapter 1: The Writing Process Exercise 1: Brainstorming Exercise 2: Clustering Exercise 3: Freewriting Exercise 4: Narrowing the Topic Exercise 5: Narrowing a Topic to Suit a Specific Audience Chapter 2: Writing Effective Paragraphs Exercise 1: Topic Sentence and Concluding Sentence Exercise 2: Proofreading and Editing Chapter 3: Narrative Paragraphs.
Methodsof DevelopingParagraphshandout 2. specificin time, place, and action. The main difference is that the illustration paragraph is a story (trueor untrue) that supports or . Writing a narration paragraph requires, consequently, sequential order and chronology.
There are many descriptive elements included into the body of a narration paragraph but, if composed correctly, the paragraph will feature much more action than depiction.5/5(2). Many students define paragraphs in terms of length: a paragraph is a group of at least five sentences, a paragraph is half a page long, etc.
In reality, though, the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph.