August 3, at I have to repeat what someone else wrote in one of the earlier comments:
Procrastination Procrastination Definition Procrastination refers to wasting time before a deadline. The tendency to procrastinate involves putting off work that must be completed to attain a certain goal, such as watching television instead of working on a term paper.
Procrastination History and Background Procrastination lies at the heart of the psychological study of goal attainment. To attain a goal, people must have adequate motivation and ability to perform the necessary actions involved in satisfying the goal.
Procrastination is particularly relevant in cultures that are industrialized and place a high priority on adherence to schedules.
Philip DeSimone has shown that procrastination becomes a more salient concept as a society becomes more industrialized.
Although some researchers have argued that procrastination is a completely modern phenomenon, similar words and concepts related to procrastination have existed throughout history.
Ancient Egyptians used words related to procrastination to describe both useful habits of avoiding unnecessary work and harmful habits indicative of laziness that preclude the possibility of completing an important activity.
The Oxford English Dictionary states that the word procrastination was frequently used by the early 17th century to describe situations in which people intelligently chose to restrain their behavior to arrive at a better conclusion.
Procrastination began to be used as a means of the negative consequences of squandering time before a deadline during the midth century, which coincides with the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. Thus, the tendency to procrastinate has existed for many years but became problematic when societies placed a high priority on faithfulness to schedules.
Consequences of Procrastination Procrastination is a difficulty that is pervasively reported in everyday settings among people who are otherwise psychologically healthy.
And although procrastination may offer people a temporary break from an upcoming deadline, the consequences of procrastination are almost uniformly negative.
Chronic procrastination has been linked to low self-esteem, self-control, and self-confidence. Other research has shown that chronic procrastinators are more likely than are non-procrastinators to have increased levels of depression, anxiety, perfectionism, self-deception, and noncompetitiveness.
Compared with nonprocrastinators, chronic procrastinators also show signs of dysfunctional impulsivity, suffer more ill health effects, and tend to score low on measures of the Big Five factor of Conscientiousness.
People who procrastinate on a regular basis make inaccurate predictions of the amount of time needed to complete activities and tend to focus on past events rather than anticipating future events.
Thus, chronic procrastination is related to a wide variety of negative physical and psychological outcomes. Causes of Procrastination In addition to documenting the consequences of procrastination, psychologists have investigated the possible reasons why people procrastinate.
One explanation is that people procrastinate to protect their self-images from the negative consequences that accompany poor performance. From this perspective, placing a barrier in the way of completing a task by procrastinating can allow the person to explain the causes of their behavior in a positive or negative manner.
If the person procrastinates and performs well on a task, then the person can explain the causes of the successful performance as having the ability to overcome an obstacle.
If the person procrastinates and performs poorly, in contrast, then the person can explain his or her performance by the procrastinating behavior that caused the person to perform at a suboptimal level.
Some research has shown that behavioral procrastination is related to the extent to which people place barriers in the way of completing activities to manipulate whether their performance can be explained positively or negatively.
Joseph Ferrari and Dianne Tice showed that chronic procrastinators engaged in procrastination when an upcoming task was evaluative and potentially threatening. Thus, one possible cause of procrastination is that people place barriers in the way of their goal to minimize the negative impact of possible poor performance.
Another possible cause of procrastination is a sense of self-uncertainty early in life. According to this perspective, the bonds that people form with their primary caregiver from an early age can influence the degree to which people procrastinate later in life.
People who grow up knowing that their caregiver is loving and responsive are less likely to procrastinate later in life, whereas people with a less secure attachment to their primary caregiver are more likely to procrastinate later in life.
Other research has demonstrated that children raised by overcontrolling parents are more likely to procrastinate later in life than are children who were raised by noncontrolling parents.Procrastination affects both people's health and the quality of their work.
The objective of the present study was to identify whether Mexican researchers in psychology procrastinate (no similar studies were found during a literature review), and determine the academic, work-related and health effects of this behavior.
What is Procrastination? Definition of Procrastinating. Procrastination is the practice of carrying out less urgent tasks in preference to more urgent ones, or doing more pleasurable things in place of less pleasurable ones, and thus putting off impending tasks to a later time.
Gafni & Geri part of the assignment had to be completed by the end of the semester. Repetitions, in either part of the assignment, analysis, or comments, were . 3 Introduction Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could control your behavior? You'd avoid over-eating, alcoholism, all bad habits, procrastination, being.
I am writing my seventh speech for my Toastsmasters meeting and I am speaking about procrastination.
This article provided me with great research and information about this subject. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in the Context of Modern Psychological Research.
Author info: Author name – Professor, Ph.D., Daniel David; Affiliation – Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy (professor), Cluj-Napoca, Romania/Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Oncological Sciences (adjunct professor), New York, USA; E-mails: .