The Rules Revisited I've dated countless women and it has always amazed me how little they know about men. If nothing else, this blog is an outlet for voicing my astonishment at the typical female's ignorance of the male mindset. At most, it is a reliable source of advice for women who want to improve their chances with the opposite sex.
Frode Moen E-mail address: He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years.
Frode received his Ph. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues. The results show that positive emotions such as joy exemplified by feeling satisfied, pleased, and happyserenity exemplified by feeling calm, balanced, and hopefulinterest exemplified by feeling curious, interested, and immersed and ecstasy exemplified by feeling exhilarated, enthusiastic, and convinced are positively associated with subjective performance.
On the other hand, negative emotions such as anger exemplified by feeling aggressive and angryfear exemplified by feeling nervous and afraidsadness exemplified by feeling sad and depressed and remorse exemplified by feeling ashamed and guilty were found to be negatively associated with subjective performance.
In general, results showed that positive emotions were most intense when the female elite athletes experienced positive events during trainings and matches and that negative emotions were most intense when the athletes experienced too challenging and negative events during trainings and matches.
Triggers that elicited positive emotional responses in female elite athletes in the current study were mostly proactive in nature. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research. In the last two decades, the national team has won the European championship seven times, the World championship three times and the Olympic games two times.
Several variables may be used to explain success in handball, amongst them coaching, leadership, and physiological variables 15, 27, Accordingly, adequate emotions are found to be important for optimal development and performance in sport 11, 25, The relationship between emotions and performance in sport may be explained with the psychological effect emotions have 16, 28and the biological reactions that acutely follow emotions and influence the biochemical processes of the body Thus, emotions have the potential to positively or negatively influence performance in sport 1, 12, The current study aims to investigate how emotions influence performance in woman handball and what stimuli that activate these emotions.
Emotions Emotions are defined as rapid, complex, electrochemical bodily responses to an actual or imagined stimulus that lead to physiological, experiential, and behavioral changes Therefore, emotional responses may be of different valence and of varying intensities.
Regarding valence, emotional responses are often categorized in three different categories. These categories play different roles in the regulation of sport behavior 2, 20, 41and include hedonic, negative, and eudaimonic emotions. Firstly, hedonic emotions include positive emotions such as pleasure, happiness, and contentment.
These emotions are typically salient when a given task is easy or when a difficult task is completed successfully Furthermore, negative emotions include emotions such as sadness, sorrow, and depression, which are found to be a typical response to experiences of setbacks and performance impairments Lastly, eudaimonic emotions are comprised of emotions such as engagement, interest, and inspiration.
These emotions are typical responses in complex and demanding situations, where tasks are hard to understand and overcome 10, 19, Emotions can be further classified into affect categories based on the model termed wheel of emotions see Figure 1developed by Plutchik In this model, emotions are categorized into eight main groups, and each has three levels of intensity.
Similar emotions are placed close together, while opposing emotions are placed facing one another. In order of decreasing intensity, the groups include: Furthermore, eight emotions are placed in between the main categories.
These in-between emotions are a result of combining the primary categories. For instance, the emotion love comes about from a mixture of joy and trust. Figure 1 A graphical depiction of the wheel of emotions, a model that classifies emotions into eight main affect categories with three levels of intensity and eight emotions that are a result of combining the primary emotions.
Model was developed by Plutchik Image from Wikimedia Commons. Emotions in sport Interestingly for sport psychology, emotions are found to be predictive of performance in the sport setting 1, 12, However, research does not give a unison answer to what effect emotions have on performance, and it is not completely clear which types of emotions are effective to enhance performance in sport 22, 29, 30, Previous research in sport psychology has mainly focused on how anxiety relates to performance The Attentional Control Theory ACT has been used to explain that high anxiety has the potential to influence performance in a negative way, due to a reduced ability to flexibly and readily shift attention between relevant task demands 6.
However, the potential negative effect depends on the degree of attentional control, and specifically the ability to execute inhibition and a shift in attention 7. Thus, researchers who build their argumentation on ACT also claim that other interactions decide the influence of negative emotions on performance.
Furthermore, the Functional Well-Being Approach FWBA in positive psychology claims that negative emotions such as anxiety, sadness, and aggression are negatively associated with performance The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more.
Men, Women, Emotions and Communication Men do talk - when they have the words. Posted Aug 31, The hippocampus is a part of the brain that plays a key role in memory and how knowledge is obtained.
However, the healthy function of the hippocampus can be affected by Alzheimer's disease and. Number symbolism, cultural associations—including religious, philosophic, and aesthetic—with various numbers.
Humanity has had a love-hate relationship with numbers from the earliest times. Bones dating from perhaps 30, years ago show scratch marks that possibly represent the phases of the. Study finds some significant differences in brains of men and women. By Michael Price Apr.
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